Theodore Baird

Main publications



  • Baird, Theodore (2016) Human Smuggling in the Eastern Mediterranean. Routledge Studies in Criminal Justice, Borders and Citizenship. Abingdon and London: Routledge


Peer-Reviewed Articles

  • Baird, Theodore & Spijkerboer, Thomas (2019) ‘Carrier Sanctions and the Conflicting Legal Obligations of Carriers: Addressing Human Rights Leakage’, Amsterdam Law Forum, 11 (1): 4-19.
  • Baird, Theodore (2018) ‘Interest Groups and Strategic Constructivism: Business Actors and Border Security Policies in the European Union’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44 (1): 118-136.
  • Baird, Theodore (2017) ‘Carrier Sanctions in Europe: A Comparison of Trends in 10 Countries’, European Journal of Migration and Law, 19 (3): 307-334. DOI: 10.1163/15718166-12340009
  • Baird, Theodore (2017) ‘Knowledge of Practice: A Multi-sited Event Ethnography of Border Security Fairs in Europe and North America’, Security Dialogue, 48 (3): 187-205. DOI: 10.1177/0967010617691656
  • Baird, Theodore (2017) ‘Non-State Actors and the New Intergovernmentalism’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 55 (6): 1192-1202. DOI: 10.1111/jcms.12570
  • Baird, Theodore (2017) ‘Who Speaks for the European Border Security Industry? A Network Analysis’, European Security, 26 (1): 37-58. DOI: 10.1080/09662839.2016.1267146
  • Baird, Theodore (2016) ‘The Geopolitics of Turkey’s ‘Humanitarian Diplomacy’ in Somalia: A Critique’, Review of African Political Economy, 43 (149): 470-477. DOI: 10.1080/03056244.2015.1084913
  • Baird, Theodore (2016) ‘Surveillance Design Communities in Europe: A Network Analysis’, Surveillance and Society, 14 (1): 34-58. Available online at:, Theodore & van Liempt, Ilse (2016) ‘Scrutinising the Double Disadvantage: Knowledge Production in the Messy Field of Migrant Smuggling’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 42 (3): 400-417. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2015.1103172
  • Baird, Theodore (2015) ‘Functional Actorness? Border Security in the EU and Turkey’, International Journal of Public Administration, 38 (12): 849-859, Special Issue: Understanding EU Actorness Today: The Role of Crisis on the Division Between EU’s Internal and External Actions and Practices. DOI: 10.1080/01900692.2015.1015548
  • Baird, Theodore (2014) ‘Watching the Ball: Deception and Exploitation from Nigeria to Turkey’, Turkish Review, 4 (4): 370-377. Special Issue: ‘Turkey and Africa: A Voyage of (Re)discovery’
  • Baird, Theodore (2014) ‘Human Smuggling and Violence in the East Mediterranean’, International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, 10 (3): 121–133. DOI: 10.1108/IJMHSC-06-2013-0010
  • Baird, Theodore (2014) ‘The More You Look the Less You See: Visibility and Invisibility of Sudanese Migrants in Athens, Greece’, Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 4 (1): 3–10. DOI: 10.2478/njmr-2013-0008


Editor-Reviewed Articles, Book Chapters, and Working Papers

  • Baird, Theodore (2016) ‘Migration, EU cooperation and authoritarianism,’ Statewatch Analysis –Viewpoint, Vol. 18, No. 22/16, December 2016, Available online at:
  • Baird, Theodore (2016) ‘Defining Human Smuggling in Migration Research: An Appraisal and Critique,’ EUI Working Paper, 2016/30, European University Institute,  Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies (RSCAS), Migration Policy Centre. Available online at:
  • Baird, Theodore (2016) ‘Who Is Responsible for Harm in Immigration Detention? Models of Accountability for Private Corporations’, Global Detention Project, Working Paper No. 11, Available online at:
  • Roman, Emanuela, Theodore Baird, and Talia Radcliffe (2016) ‘Why Turkey is Not a ‘Safe Country’,’ Statewatch Analysis, Vol. 18, No 3/16, February 2016, Available online at:
  • Baird, Theodore (2015) ‘L’industria del confine,’ inTrasformazione, Vol 4, N° 2,
  • Baird, Theodore (2015) ‘Nigerian entrepreneurs in Istanbul, Turkey: spatial and temporal dimensions of mixed embeddedness,’ IMI Working Paper Series, 07/2015, Volume 115, International Migration Institute (IMI), University of Oxford. Available online at:
  • Baird, Theodore (2015) ‘Trafic d’êtres humains et torture au Sinaï,’ Revue Quart Monde, N°233, 2015/1, Special Issue: ‘Esclaves d’hier et d’aujourd’hui’
  • Baird, Theodore (2013) ‘Theoretical Approaches to Human Smuggling,’ DIIS Working Paper, August 2013:10.
  • Baird, Theodore (2013) ‘Understanding Human Smuggling as a Human Rights Issue,’ DIIS Policy Brief, August 2013.
  • Baird, Theodore (2013) ‘Israël et les réfugiés,’ Vivre Ensemble, February 2013.
  • Baird, Theodore (2012) ‘Le Sinaï et le trafic d’etre humains,’ Vivre Ensemble, December 2012.

Book Reviews

  • Baird, Theodore (2016) ‘Carrier sanctions: From deterrence to compliance,’ Review of: Sophie Scholten (2015) The Privatisation of Immigration Control through Carrier Sanctions. Leiden: Brill. Asiel & Migrantenrecht, Nr. 1: 43-44


Editor-Reviewed Commentaries

2017                ‘Knowledge of practice: Border security fairs in Europe and North America,’ Security Dialogue Author’s Blog, PRIO, 15 May 2017.

2016                ‘Human Smugglers Roundtable,’ Allegra Lab, 30 March & 1 April 2016,

2015                ‘The Double Disadvantage of Migrant Smuggling Studies,’ Border Criminologies, Centre for Criminology at the University of Oxford, 4 December 2015,

2015                ‘The Business of Militarized Borders in the European Union’, The Broken Rifle, August 2015, No. 103. Special issue: The militarisation of borders.

2015                ‘Dertig jaar ‘vrij’ reizen door de Schengenruimte’, Verblijfblog, 25 June 2015,

2015                ‘Ending the penalization of youth in Turkey?’ openDemocracy, 10 June 2015,

2015                Signatory to ‘Twisting the ‘lessons of history’ to authorise unjustifiable violence: the Mediterranean crisis,’ openDemocracy, 20 May 2015,

2015                ‘Spectral vessels,’ openDemocracy, 17 January 2015, with Paolo Cuttitta and Thomas Spijkerboer,

2014                ‘Het bootongeluk met de Torun: migranten sterven in de Zwarte Zee,’ Verblijfblog, 16 December 2014,

2014                ‘De zee wordt onneembare grens,’ Het Parool, Het Laatste Woord, 25 November 2014, pg. 26, with Thomas Spijkerboer.

2014                ‘Migrant Death at the Clashing Rocks: The Tragedy of the Torun,’ Border Criminologies, Centre for Criminology at the University of Oxford, 12 November 2014,

2014                ‘Technologies on the Move: EUROSUR and Nomadic Surveillance,’ ZNet, 8 November 2014,

2014                ‘Where is civil society in the EU’s  new Maritime Security Strategy?’ openDemocracy, 7 November 2014,

2013                ‘Protests in Turkey,’ DIIS Comment, 7 June 2013,

2013                ‘EU må reagere på vold mod indvandrere i Grækenland,’ Jyllandsposten, 7 June 2013.

2013                ‘Afrikanere flygter fra Egypten til Israel,’ Jyllandsposten, 8 March 2013.

2013                ‘African Migrants to Israel Face Refoulement, Discrimination,’ (non)Citizens of the World, 30 January 2013.

 2012                ‘En humanitær katastrofe lurer,’ Jyllandsposten,7 December 2012.

2012                ‘Syrian refugee camps and conflict in Turkey,’ openDemocracy, 24 November 2012,

2012                ‘Syrian Refugee Camps and Conflict in Turkey,’ DIIS Comment, 22 November 2012,

2012                ‘Israel and the Criminalization of Asylum Seekers,’ DIIS Comment, 19 November 2012,

2012                ‘European dreams deferred,’ Today’s Zaman, 2 August 2012,*.html

2011                ‘Why diplomacy remains Turkey’s best asset in Syria,’ Today’s Zaman, 2 December 2011,*.html

2011                ‘The Missing Migration Component of Turkey-Africa Relations,’ openDemocracy, 1 December 2011,